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What is Node.js? The JavaScript runtime explained

Scalability, latency, and throughput are key performance indicators for web servers. Keeping the latency low and the throughput high while scaling up and out is not easy. Node.js is a JavaScript runtime environment that achieves low latency and high throughput by taking a “non-blocking” approach to serving requests. In other words, Node.js wastes no time or resources on waiting for I/O requests to return.

In the traditional approach to creating web servers, for each incoming request or connection the server spawns a new thread of execution or even forks a new process to handle the request and send a response. Conceptually, this makes perfect sense, but in practice it incurs a great deal of overhead.

While spawning threads incurs less memory and CPU overhead than forking processes, it can still be inefficient. The presence of a large number of threads can cause a heavily loaded system to spend precious cycles on thread scheduling and context switching, which adds latency and imposes limits on scalability and throughput.

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